Viruses

Viruses are microscopic bundles of genetic material surrounded by protein coats that depend on the host cells they infect. The classification of viruses depends on viral size and shape, chemical composition and structure of the genome, and the mode of viral replication. 

Human viral families and some of the major human viral infections

Shorthand: G = genus, SF = subfamily, spp = species; plural, VAX = the vaccine for this virus

DNA Virus families: 

Poxviridae

  • G: Orthopoxviruses – variola (smallpox); VAX

Hepadnaviridae

Herpesviridae (HHV = human herpes virus)

  • SF: Alphaherpesvirinae
  • SF: Betaherpesvirinae
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5)
    • Roseolovirus (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7)
  • SF: Gammaherpesvirinae
    • Lymphocryptoviruses – Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, HHV-4)
    • Rhadinovirus – Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8)
  • (there are 48 unclassified herpes viruses)

Adenoviridae

  • G: Mastadenovirus – Adenovirus spp.

Papillomaviridae

Parvoviridae

  • Parvovirus B19 (fifth disease)
  • Parvovirus RA-1

Polyomaviridae

  • Includes human polyomaviruses (HPyV) – JC virus, BK virus, KI virus, WU virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV).

RNA Virus Families:

Astroviridae

  • Human Astroviruses

Caliciviridae

  • Norwalk virus
  • Sapporo viruses
  • (Hepatitis E)

Picornaviridae

Flaviviridae

  • G: Flaviviruses: Yellow fever virus; VAX, West Nile virus, Dengue Fever virus
  • Hepatitis C
  • Japanese Encephalitis virus (VAX, but no longer available in the U.S.)

Coronaviridae

Paramyxoviridae

  • SF: Paramyxovirinae
    • G: Avulavirus – Newcastle disease virus
    • G: Morbilliviruses – Measles virus, VAX
    • G: Respirovirus – Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3, common cold viruses
    • G: Rubulavirus – Mumps virus, VAX,  Human parainfluenza viruses 2 and 4
  • SF: Pneumovirus
    • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Orthomyxoviridae

Bunyaviridae

  • Hantaan virus
  • Rift Valley Fever Virus
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  • Toscana Virus
  • Naples Virus

Arenaviridae

  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
  • Guanarito virus (GTOV)
  • Junin virus (JUNV)
  • Lassa virus (LASV)
  • Lujo virus (LUJV)
  • Machupo virus (MACV)
  • Sabia virus (SABV)
  • Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV).

Filoviridae

  • Ebola virus
  • Marburg virus

Reoviridae

Bornaviridae

  • Borna virus

Retroviridae

  • Human T-lymphotrophic virus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Togaviridae

  • G: Alphavirus – Eastern equine encephalitis virus
  • G: Rubivirus – Rubella virus; VAX

Rhabdoviridae

  • Rabies virus; VAX

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