Viruses

Viruses are microscopic bundles of genetic material surrounded by protein coats that depend on the host cells they infect. The classification of viruses depends on viral size and shape, chemical composition and structure of the genome, and the mode of viral replication. 

Human viral families and some of the major human viral infections (“VAX” denotes that there is a vaccine for this virus):

DNA Virus families: 

Poxviridae

  • G: Orthopoxviruses – variola (smallpox); VAX, vaccinia

Hepadnaviridae

Herpesviridae

  • SF: Alphaherpesvirinae
    • Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2)
    • Varicalla zoster virus (HHV-3) – Varicella (Chickenpox) VAX and zoster (shingles) VAX
  • SF: Betaherpesvirinae
    • Cytomegalovirus (CMV, HHV-5)
    • Roseolovirus (HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-7)
  • SF: Gammaherpesvirinae
    • Lymphocryptoviruses – Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, HHV-4)
    • Rhadinovirus – Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, HHV-8)
  • (there are 48 unclassified herpes viruses)

Adenoviridae

  • G: Mastadenovirus – Adenovirus spp.

Papillomaviridae

  • Includes many, many types of Human papillomaviruses (HPV); VAX for HPV types 16, 18,  11,  and 6

Parvoviridae

  • Parvovirus B19 (fifth disease)
  • Parvovirus RA-1

Polyomaviridae

  • Includes human polyomaviruses (HPyV) – JC virus, BK virus, KI virus, WU virus, Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), Trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus (TSV).

 

RNA Virus Families:

Astroviridae

  • Human Astroviruses

Caliciviridae

  • Norwalk virus
  • Sapporo viruses
  • (Hepatitis E)

Picornaviridae

Flaviviridae

  • G: Flaviviruses: Yellow fever virus; VAX, West Nile virus, Dengue Fever virus
  • Hepatitis C
  • Japanese Encephalitis virus (VAX, but no longer available in the U.S.)

Coronaviridae

Paramyxoviridae

  • SF: Paramyxovirinae
    • G: Avulavirus – Newcastle disease virus
    • G: Morbilliviruses – Measles virus, VAX
    • G: Respirovirus – Human parainfluenza viruses 1 and 3, common cold viruses
    • G: Rubulavirus – Mumps virus, VAX,  Human parainfluenza viruses 2 and 4
  • SF: Pneumovirus
    • Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

Orthomyxoviridae

  • Influenza viruses; VAX

Bunyaviridae

  • Hantaan virus
  • Rift Valley Fever Virus
  • Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus
  • Toscana Virus
  • Naples Virus

Arenaviridae

  • Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV)
  • Guanarito virus (GTOV)
  • Junin virus (JUNV)
  • Lassa virus (LASV)
  • Lujo virus (LUJV)
  • Machupo virus (MACV)
  • Sabia virus (SABV)
  • Whitewater Arroyo virus (WWAV).

Filoviridae

  • Ebola virus
  • Marburg virus

Reoviridae

Bornaviridae

  • Borna virus

Retroviridae

  • Human T-lymphotrophic virus
  • Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)

Togaviridae

  • G: Alphavirus – Eastern equine encephalitis virus
  • G: Rubivirus – Rubella virus; VAX

Rhabdoviridae

  • Rabies virus; VAX

 

Shorthand:

G = genus

SF = subfamily

spp = species; plural

HHV = human herpes virus

VAX = there is a vaccine for this virus

 

 

 

 

 

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