MLT

Medical Laboratory Terminology, Tests, and Applications

BLOOD BANK

  • ABO and Rh
    • ABO
    • Rh
  • Antibody Screen and Identification
    • Antibody Screen
    • Antibody Identification
      • Duffy
      • Ii
      • Kell
      • Kidd
      • Lewis
      • MNS
      • P
      • Rh
      • Multiple antibodies
  • Crossmatch and Special Tests
    • Crossmatch
    • Special Tests
      •  DAT
      • Phenotyping and genotyping
      • Elution/absorption
      • Antibody titer
      • Pre-warm technique
      • Rosette
  • Blood Donation, Transfusion therapy, Transfusion Reactions, and Hemolytic Disease of the Fetus and Newborn (HDFN)
    • Donor Donation
      • Donor Requirements
    • Transfusion Therapy
      • RBC
      • PLT
      • FFP
      • Cryoprecipitated AHF
      • RhIG
      • Transfusion Reactions
      • HDFN

URINALYSIS & OTHER BODY FLUIDS

  • Urinalysis
    •  Pre-Analytical
    • Physical
      • Color and clarity
      • Specific gravity/osmolality
    • Chemical
      • Reagent strip
      • Confirmatory tests
    • Microscopic Urinalysis
      • Cells
      • Casts
      • Crystals
      • Contaminants/artifacts/microorganisms
    • Complete Urinalysis (includes physical, chemical, and microscopic)
    • Physiology
  • Other Body Fluids
    • CSF
    • Amniotic, Gastric, and Synovial Fluids. Serous Body Fluids, Semen, and Feces
 CHEMISTRY
  • Carbohydrates, Acid Base and Electrolytes
    • Carbohydrates
      • Glucose
      • Glycosylated hemoglobin
      • Other carbohydrates (e.g. lactate)
    • Acid Base
      •  pH, pCO2, pO2
      • Osmolality, base excess
    • Electrolytes
      • Sodium, potassium, chloride,bicarbonate, anion gap
      • Calcium, magnesium, phosphorus
  • Proteins and Other Nitrogen-Containing Compounds
    • Protein and Other Nitrogen-Containing Compounds
      • Total protein, albumin
      • Globulins (alpha 1, alpha 2, beta,gamma)
      • Ferritin, transferrin
      • Iron and TIBC
      • Ammonia
      • Creatinine, BUN
      • Uric acid
      • Troponin
      • Other
    • Heme Derivatives
      • Hemoglobin (S, fetal A2, plasma)
      • Bilirubin, urobilinogen
      • Other (e.g., myoglobin)
  • Enzymes, Lipids and Lipoproteins
    •  Enzymes
      • Amylase, lipase
      • AST, ALT
      • CK, LD
    • Lipids and Lipoproteins
      • Cholesterol (total, HDL, LDL)
      • Triglycerides
      • Phospholipids
      • Other lipids and lipoproteins
  • Special Chemistry (Endocrinology, Tumor Markers, TDM, Toxicology)
    • Endocrinology and Tumor Markers
      •  T3, T4, TBG, TSH
      • hCG, FSH, LH, estriol, estradiol
      • Other hormones (e.g., cortisol)
      •  Tumor markers (alpha fetoprotein, CEA,hCG, PSA)
    • TDM and Toxicology
      • Therapeutic drug monitoring
      • Drugs of abuse
      • Other toxicology (e.g., lead)

HEMATOLOGY

  • Erythrocytes and Leukocytes
    • Red Blood Cells and Indices
      • RBC count
      • Hemoglobin, hematocrit and indices
    • White Blood Cell Count
    • CBC (includes count, morphology and/or differential)
  • Other Tests
    • Reticulocyte Count and Other RBC Inclusions
    • ESR
    • Tests for Hemoglobin Defects (e.g., sicklecell tests)
    • Other
  • Morphology and Differentials
    • Red Blood Cell Morphology
    • White Blood Cell Morphology
    • Differential
    • Platelet Morphology
  • Platelets and Hemostasis
    •  Platelets
      • Platelet count
      • Bleeding time
    • Hemostasis
      • PT, aPTT, TT
      • Fibrinogen, FDP, D-dimer
      • Factor assays, antithrombin III
      • Circulating anticoagulants
      • Mixing studies
      • Anticoagulant therapy
      • Other

IMMUNOLOGY

  • Immunity
    •  Autoimmunity
      • ANA, anti-DNA
      • Thyroid antibodies
    • Pre-Analytical, Test Principles
  • Infectious Diseases
    •  Viral
      • EBV/infectious mononucleosis
      • Hepatitis
      • HIV/HTLV/CMV
      • Rubella/measles
      • Other viruses
    •  Microbial
      • Cold agglutinins
      • Syphilis
      • Other microorganisms

MICROBIOLOGY

  •     General Bacteriology and Aerobic Gram- positive Cocci
    • General Bacteriology (e.g., pre-analytical,biochemical and susceptibility testing)
    • Aerobic Gram-positive Cocci:Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Enterococcus, other (e.g., Micrococcus, Leuconostoc)
  • Gram-negative Bacilli
    • Enterobacteriaceae: Citrobacter, Escherichia, Enterobacter, Klebsiella, Morganella, Proteus, Providencia, Salmonella, Serratia, Shigella, Yersinia 
    • Other Gram-negative Bacilli: Acinetobacter, Aeromonas, Bordetella, Brucella, Campylobacter, Eikenella, Francisella, Haemophilus, Helicobacter, Legionella, Pasteurella, Plesiomonas, Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, Chryseobacterium, HACEK Stenotrophomonas, Vibrio
  • Gram-negative Cocci, Gram-positive Bacilli and Anaerobes
    • Aerobic Gram-negative Cocci: Neisseria, Moraxella
    • Aerobic or Facultative Gram-positive Bacilli: Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Erysipelothrix, Gardnerella, Lactobacillus, Listeria, Norcardia, Streptomyces
    • Anaerobes
      • Gram-positive: Bifidobacterium,Actinomyces, Clostridium, Eubacterium,Peptostreptococcus, Propionibacterium
      •  Gram-negative: Bacteroides,Fusobacterium, Porphyromonas, Prevotella, Veillonella
  • Fungus, Viruses, Mycobacteria and Parasites
    •  Fungi
      • Yeast (e.g., Candida, Cryptococcus,Geotrichum)
      • Dimorphic fungi (e.g., Blastomyces,Coccidioides, Histoplasma, Sporothrix)
      • Dermatophytes (e.g., Epidermophyton,Microsporum, Trichophyton)
      • Zygomycetes (e.g., Absidia, Mucor,Rhizopus)
      • Opportunistic molds/septate hyalinemolds (e.g., Aspergillus, Penicillium)
    •  Mycobacteria
      • Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (e.g.,. M. tuberculosis)
      • Other Mycobacteria (e.g., M. avium, M. avium-intracellulare, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. kansasii, M. leprae, M. marinum, M. scrofulaceum)
    • Viruses and Other Microorganisms
      • Viruses (e.g., Cytomegalovirus, Herpessimplex, Influenza, Varicella-zoster)
      • Other microorganisms (e.g., Chlamydiaand Mycoplasma)
    •  Parasites
      • Blood and tissue protozoa
        (e.g., Plasmodium, Pneumocystis, Trypanosoma)
      • Intestinal and urogenital protozoa (e.g., Cryptosporidium, Entamoeba, Giardia, and Trichomonas)
      • Intestinal and tissue helminths
        (e.g., Ascaris, Enterobius, hookworm, Schistosoma, Taenia, Trichinella, Trichuris)

LABORATORY OPERATIONS

  • Quality Assessment
    • Pre-Analytical
    • Quality Control
    • Compliance
    • Laws and Regulation
  •  Safety
    • Instrumentation, maintenance, and principles of operation
    • Laboratory Mathematics
    • Laboratory Information Systems
  • General microscopy
  • Phlebotomy and specimen collection
  • Patient identification
  • Waived testing

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